Sunday, September 13, 2009

A Quick PowerShell Reference Pocketbook

As most of us already know that PowerShell is a new scripting language from Microsoft based on .NET framework. Microsoft and other vendors are heavily placing the scripting needs around PowerShell for administrative use. Specially starting Windows 2008 PowerShell has become an integral part of the Windows environment. Here is a quick reference from my studies of PowerShell language. Since I am already familiar with other programming and scripting languages, I used Dr. Tobias PowerShell E-book for quickly learning the syntax and semantics of PowerShell.

Here is a quick reference guide that I created for my self for future reference which I thought will also be helpful for others. Please remember this is just a quick reference for those who have some programming or scripting back ground.

You can download MS Word and PF versions from here:
Word - A Quick PowerShell Reference Pocketbook
PDF - A Quick PowerShell Reference Pocketbook

Statement Evaluation Order:
Parenthesis ( ) are always evaluated first

Automatic Unit Recognition:
Units like KB, MB, and GB can be used with numbers like 1MB + 2GB. Results are in bytes by default.

Windows Batch & Other Commands:
cmd /c command-name
use & to execute commands in quotes, i.e. & "c:\autoexec.bat"
To execute a program in current directory, prefix program name with \ i.e. .\editplus.exe . Unless the folder is on
the windows path $env:path
Add folder to path: $env:path += ";C:\programs\Windows NT\accessories"

Cmdlet Convention: Use the forms of verbs and nouns i.e. Get-Help
Add, Clear, Compare, Convert, Copy, Export, Format, Get, Group, Import, Measure, Move, New, Out, Read, Remove, Rename, Resolve, Restart, Resume, Select, Set, Sort, Split, Start, Stop, Suspend, Tee (Split up), Test, Trace, Update, Write.

Cmdlet Parameters:
Common Parameters i.e. ErrorAction, WhatIf
Named Parameters i.e. string, string[]
Switch Parameter i.e. boolean ($true,$false)
Positional Parameters i.e. Get-ChildItem -recurse, -name, c:\windows *.exe
Disable Parameters: Use -- or "-Parameter" (quotes) to disable parameter recognition

$syntax i.e. $company = “Axiom Dynamics Corp.”
Typeless i.e. $one = 1
${special variable} i.e. ${I am special} = “Special”
$assignment = value or “cmdlet Result”
Multiple inline assignments are supported i.e. $ten = $10 = 10
separate statements by ; i.e. $one=1;$two=2
$_ - this reference
Swap variable values:
$Value1 = 10; $Value2 = 20;
$Value1, $Value2 = $Value2, $Value1
Virtual drive is a variable
Write-Protected variables
"backtick" character ’
"." before the script file path to turn off restrictions on visibility
Scope modifiers are private, local, script, and global
Type: $variable.GetType()
Type safety: [oneoftypes] $variable where,
[oneoftypes]: [array], [bool], [byte],[char],[datetime], [decimal], [double], [guid], [hashtable], [int16], [int32], [int], [int64],, [long], [nullable], [psobject], [regex], [sbyte], [scriptblock], [single], [float], [string], [switch], [timespan], [type], [uint16], [uint32], [uint64], [xml]
Variable Options: "None","ReadOnly","Constant","Private","AllScope"
Variable Validation Classes: ValidateNotNullOrEmptyAttribute,ValidatePatternAttribute,ValidateRangeAttribute,ValidateSetAttribute

Hex are prefixed with 0x
Operators: +, -, *, /, %
Conditional: -eq, -ceq, -ieq, -ne, -cne, -ine, -gt, -cgt, -igt, -ge, -cge, -ige, -lt, -clt, -ilt, -le, -cle, -ile, -contains, -ccontains, icontains, -notcontains, -cnotcontains, -inotcontains, -not/!, -and, -or, -xor
Switch w/ default
strings (case sensitive)

The comma always creates an array.
Verify e.g. $a is [Array]
Index starts at 0 and -1 is last element
Force to return array by using @()
Create New Array i.e.
$arr = 1..4
$arr = 1,2,3,4
$arr = "1","2"
$arr = 1
$arr = @()
Reverse Arrays
New elements Can be added by using += operator
Strongly Typed Arrays: [[int] ]$arr = 1,2,3
Arrays (returns matching / unlatching members)

Hash Tables:
Key-Value pair sep by ;
Access/Modify using either [] or .dot
Note: Arrays and HT are references to data

Cmdlets To Pipe: Compare-Object, ConvertTo-Html, Export-Clixml,Export-Csv, ForEach-Object, Format-List, Format-Table, Format-Wide, Get-Unique, Group-Object, Import-Clixml, Measure-Object, more, Out-File, Out-Host, Out-Host, -paging, Out-Null (suppress output), Out-Printer, Out-String, Select-Object, Sort-Object, Tee-Object, Where-Object (?), Out-Default, Out-Host, * (wild card), Scriptblocks,
Modes: Sequential/Streaming Mode
ETS - Extended Type System: Emergency mode,
$$ - last token of pipeline

ForEach-Object ("{indexes}") == %
ForEach - works with collection
Do/While, While, For, break, continue, :label

Example: PowerShell Virtual Drives
$alias: Get-PSDrive
dir alias:
- Group-Object definition
Create new aliases using Set-Alias, i.e. Set-Alias edit notepad.exe
Save Aliases using profiles or Export-Alias/Import-Alias cmdlets.
Life span of alias and function are only when PS console is open.

Syntax: myFunc { commands/code $args }, multi line (enter) / single line (;
Calling: $function:tabexpansion | Out-File myscript.ps1/>file.ps1
Write-protected functions: Set-Item function:{//code} -option constant
Delete function: Del function:test,
Arguments: Args: $args - spaces ""
Parameters: function myFunc([type] $Param1=110, $Param2=$(Get-Date), [Switch] ParamN)
Returns are array or return keyword or omit returns
Write-Debug ,$ErrorActionPreference,
Stop-Process -nameofFunction
Dir function:
$function: prompt
Function {begin{}process{}end{}}

New-Object: Creates new object
Add-Member (NoteProperty, ScriptMethod, CodeMethod, Method)
Properties and Methods: $objectName.PropertyName or $objectName.MethodName()
Versioning: Major, Minor, Build and Revision
-static, constructors
Can load assemblies and COM.

Scripts & Other Language Integration:
Windows Batch Files
VBScript (Wscript //H:CScript - console, WScript //H:WScript – Windows)
Own: ps1.
Before executing scripted created on other machines you must Set-ExecutionPolicy to RemoteSigned
Get-ExecutionPolicy, Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned
md $env:appdata\PSScripts
\myscript.ps1 Tobias,
param ($path, $name), param ([string] $Name=$( ` Throw "Parameter missing: -name Name")
[int]$age=$( `,. .\calcfunctions.ps1,
. $env:appdata\PSLib\calcfunctions.ps1,
{begin{} process{} end{}}
Four Different Profile Scripts: All users[private],Current user[private]

Confirm:Low, Medium, and High, $ConfirmPreference = "Low"
Trap {}
ErrorVariable myError
Write-Debug, $DebugPreference:SilentlyContinue,Continue,Stop,Inquire, Set-PSDebug –step

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